The cannabis plant, according to qualitative and quantitative investigation, has more than 113 functional cannabinoids, which are extracted industrially and sold as extracts, concentrates, and oils, among other things. The benefits of cannabis isolates and extracts are increasingly becoming more widely recognized throughout the world, resulting in a significant increase in the market value of these products.
Interesting fact: All extracts are concentrated, however not all concentrated extracts are regarded to be concentrated concentrations.
Cannabis extracts are isolates that are generated from their biomass with the use of solvent-based extraction methods. The solvent-based procedure, which makes use of volatile organic solvents in the separation of trichomes from the plant, is the most widely used technology for commercial extract manufacturing and also the most expensive.
Because the vast majority of these solvents are combustible, the processes are considered potentially dangerous unless they are carried out by trained professionals…………………………………… The following processes are employed in the extraction of extracts for use as industrial raw materials or for human consumption:
The process of alcohol extraction
Method of obtaining supercritical carbon dioxide extraction
Technique for extracting hydrocarbons
TECHNIQUE FOR THE EXTRACTION OF ALCOHOL
There are two main types of commercial cannabis extraction: warm temperature alcohol extraction and cold temperature alcohol extraction. Warm alcohol extraction is generally performed using the Soxhlet technique, whereas cold alcohol extraction is performed using cryogenic ethanol extraction devices, according to the manufacturer.
APPARATUS FOR SOXHLET
Soxhlet apparatus, which was invented in 1879 by Franz von Soxhlet, operates on the basis of polarity between the sample and the solvent. Its operation necessitates little adjustments and requires little control.
The pump is responsible for pumping an appropriate solvent into the distillation flask. The solvent is heated in the distillation flask using a heating element, after which it flows via the distillation arm and into the thimble containing the biomass, where it is collected.
Meanwhile, the condenser unit, which consists of two tubes: the solvent vapor tube and the solvent outflow tube, ensures that the condensed solvent vapor descends into the thimble in a controlled manner. Immediately following extraction, a mixture of extract and solvent is introduced into the Soxhlet extraction chamber, which is comprised of a vessel that retains the mixture and a siphon tube from which the isolate is evacuated.
Prior to expelling the isolate, the volatile solvent is evaporated by the rotating evaporators and returned to the distillation flask by the rotary evaporators.
It is important to note that when selecting a Soxhlet extractor, the holding volume and capacity should be taken into consideration.
Only rudimentary mechanical knowledge is required.
Process of extraction that is effective
Because of the reuse of solvents, it is cost-effective.
Reduces the impact of the entourage effect
Azeotropic mixtures should be employed in order to achieve an efficient result.
*** Azeotropes are mixes that have a constant boiling point that cannot be changed by simple distillation or boiling off the solvent.
SYSTEMS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF CRYOGENIC ETHANOL (CRYOEXS)
As a result of the discovery of CryoExs, the ethanol extraction technique has been brought into greater prominence as the best of both worlds: a highly efficient extraction procedure that yields an extremely broad spectrum product.
The solvent is chilled in the solvent storage with a cryogenic chiller before it is pumped into an extraction vessel containing the biomass for extraction. The isolate is separated in the extraction vessel, and the solvent/isolate solution filters through the tank and into the sock filters for further purification in the sock filters. When it reaches the condenser, where it is separated from the isolate by evaporation and reflux, the mixture has completed its journey.
The extraction vessel can be coupled to a winterization system that is integrated with the extraction vessel to prevent loss of CBD-content during a secondary winterization procedure.
Maximum uptime is required.
Improves the overall quality of the output
Scalability is a breeze.
EXTRACTION OF CO2 IS VERY IMPORTANT.
The extraction of cannabinoids with the use of supercritical fluids is what this is all about. The vast majority of these fluids are categorized as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), of which several are subject to stringent controls due to their harmful effects on the ozone layer (see chart below).
CO2, on the other hand, is a more environmentally friendly alternative to harmful VOCs because, despite the fact that it is a greenhouse gas, it can be recycled from and back into the atmosphere.
EXTRACTION VESSEL OF ESSENTIAL IMPORTANCE
It is possible to use a supercritical extraction vessel with a mix of solvent, room temperature, and high pressure in extraction for effective extraction.
Prior to extraction, the pressure pump boosts the solvent’s pressure to a level that is slightly higher than its supercritical point, but not quite high enough to destroy the phytochemicals in the biomass. The pre-heater works in conjunction with the vessel’s heater to guarantee that the solvent’s temperature is maintained at a constant level (CO2).
Following solvent activation, it is transferred to the twin-batch extractor, which contains the biomass, in order to separate the target isolate from the background. Following that, the solvent-isolate combination is forced into the separator vessel, where it is cooled by the back-pressure regulator before being separated. Rotary evaporators in the separator vessel are responsible for vaporizing the solvent from the isolate at the end of the process.
Fun fact: A typical supercritical extraction vessel operates between the pressures of 1800psi and 5000psi, depending on the application.
Solvent with a low price tag
Resulting in a non-toxic isolate
Significantly less dangerous
Machinery that is extremely expensive
The Joules-Thomson effect may be a factor.
Production rates are slow while using less expensive machinery.
HYDROCARBON EXTRACTION is a process that involves the extraction of hydrogen from carbon dioxide.
It is the most widely utilized process in the commercial extraction of cannabinoids. It is also the most expensive. When used as a solvent, it makes use of authorized hydrocarbons, most frequently butane and propane. Either hydrocarbon can be utilized on its own or in combination with another to create a more efficient process. Despite the fact that this method produces a pure product, the isolate can be purified further (if necessary) with the use of other processes such as winterization.
The Use of Butane as a Solvent
Compound of class 2 flammability.
The boiling point is low (31.1°F).
The Use of Propane as a Solvent
In comparison to butane, there is a higher pressure.
The boiling point is -43.6°F, which explains the high pressure (Pressure law)
Pressure and temperature are very important factors to consider.
MACHINE FOR EXTRACTION OF HYDROCARBON
The hydrocarbon extraction machine is a sophisticated, safe, and cost-effective technique that is used to obtain a variety of cannabis isolates in various formats.
The solvent is held in a pressurized recovery cylinder before being pumped into the blasting chamber, where the target isolate is separated from the rest of the mixture. Once the solvent-isolate combination has been separated, it is collected in a collection vessel that has been submerged in a warm water bath (which contains an immersion heater of Class 1/ Division 1) in order to evaporate the solvent.
A molecular sieve is used to extract leftover moisture from the solvent after it has vaporized. After that, it is propelled into an ice-submerged condensing coil to re-liquefy the vapor before returning it to the recovery cylinder.
Extremely versatile in terms of solvents
Yields that are both larger in quantity and higher in quality
Improved retention of the isolate’s characteristics
It is capable of operating at low pressures (300psi or less).
Industrial employees’ health complications as a result of exposure to hydrocarbons
Process that poses a high risk
It is primarily utilized in the extraction of lipids from cannabis oil, which is a refinement procedure. It is mostly used in the extraction industry for the purification of isolates, and it is also used in the pharmaceutical industry. However, it has the negative effect of decreasing the entourage effect of the extract and is therefore not recommended when attempting to create full-spectrum CBD. It is based on the principle of wax crystallization that the process of winterization is carried out.
It is necessary to cool and freeze the solvent-isolate mixture in/with the help of a cooling structure or device. Please keep in mind that the temperature and duration of cooling are determined by the type of the solvent and the main extraction procedure.
In order to melt the cannabis isolate, the frozen combination must first reach a temperature high enough to melt the waxes but not the cannabis isolate. Using a filter or Buchner funnel, the melted mixture is separated from the dissolved oil and solvent once it has been melted down. The centrifugal evaporator, which is used to complete the process, separates the more volatile solvent from the cannabis oil through the process of evaporation.
THINGS TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT WHEN SELECTING EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES
Choosing the most appropriate extraction process can be a difficult task, especially since some of the procedures include the use of flammable solvents, which raises questions about their safety. When it comes to purchasing extraction equipment, there are two basic errors that most people fall into: first, they overestimate the cost of the equipment.
The purchasing of a facility without consulting with a professional facilities design team
Individuals who purchase a home without taking into consideration the construction and style of the home.
As a result, while selecting a suitable approach to be used, the following general considerations should be taken into account:
Production objectives, as well as performance quality
The extraction procedure that will be used
Budget as a whole (up-front and total)
National safety regulations are in place. equipment that complies with regulations
The building and the property where the operation is located
Equipment voltage and frequency standards are set by the manufacturer.
The utilization of raw materials is governed by legislation.